Weakened immune system and retarded growth from stress

Authors: Muoneke, Maurice and Childress, W. Michael
Journal: Reviews in Fisheries Science, 2(2): 123-156
Year: 1994
Where: Texas A&M University, and Texas Parks and Wildlife Department

Stress caused by anglers can weaken a fish’s immune system, thus leaving it more susceptible to disease.

weakened immune system

"Chronically stressed fish may be less disease resistant as a result of weakened immune systems."

Clapp, D. F. and R. D. Clark, Jr., (1989) Hooking mortality of smallmouth bass caught on live minnows and artificial spinners. Ar. Am.J. Fish. Manage., 9:81-85.
Fish Pain