Dr Braithwaite is a specialist in animal perception, learning and memory.
"Based on these kinds of evidence, I proposed that we should extend welfare concerns to fish. I reached this point by asking whether fish have nociceptors¹, whether these were activated when a noxious chemical came into contact with the receptors, and whether fish respond in ways that indicate they suffer from this exposure to the chemical. In each case the answer was yes."
"... the relative value of the evidence we have to support sentience and pain perception in fish. It is as good as anything we have for birds and mammals. Fish, like birds and mammals, have a capacity for self-awareness."
¹ A nociceptor is a sensory receptor that reacts to potentially damaging stimuli by sending nerve signals to the spinal cord and brain. This process is called nociception.