Authors: Cooke, S and Sneddon, L
Journal: Applied Animal Behaviour Science
Year: 2007
Where: Liverpool University, and Carleton University, Ottawa, Canada

Those who deny pain in fish, say that because fish do not have a neocortex as part of their brain, they cannot feel pain. This paper demonstrates that birds and amphibians, who also lack a neocortex, do feel pain and suffer.

"Birds and amphibians lack a neocortex; this suggests that they also do not experience pain. Yet many scientific studies have amply demonstrated pain and suffering in these groups (e.g. birds, Gentle, 1992; amphibians, Stevens, 1992)."

Gentle, M.J., 1992, Pain in birds Anim. Welfare 1, 235–247
Stevens, C.W., 1992. Alternatives to the use of mammals for pain research Life Sci. 50, 901–912.
Fish Pain