Anglers catch billions of fish every year across the world. This generates a lot of profit. Because the industry is such a powerful lobby, damage to ecology is kept hidden, and angling remains
largely unregulated. Anglers have a severe and cumulative impact on fish populations, including fish that are
rare or endangered.
Alien species of fish are added to make it easier for anglers, but this causes losses to native fish and other wildlife through competition, predation and introduction of disease and parasites. Introduced fish popular with anglers, such as trout and carp, reduce the natural gene pool of fish globally. Modern technology makes it easier to wage war on fish, while simpler discarded technology, such as hooks and fishing line, and general litter, cause harm to many birds and mammals.
Research, carried out at the University of California (Schroeder, 2002), examined the harm done to fish off the Californian coast, in particular to the long-lived rockfish. Shockingly, California has 1.7 million anglers, making 6 million fishing trips a year -worldwide, it has been estimated that a staggering 47 billion fish are caught by recreational fishermen every year¹. Reflecting the throw-away attitude of this pastime, the researchers found large amounts of litter from anglers - lead weights, artificial lures, monofilament line, and Budweiser beer cans.
ANGLERS TRY TO BLAME HIGH DEATH TOLL ON POLLUTION
ANGLERS ADD TO POPULATION DECLINE CAUSED BY COMMERCIAL FISHING
Scientists in Canada (Post, 2002) also reported that recreational angling damages fish populations in the same way commercial fishing does. Data from four high-profile Canadian recreational fisheries show dramatic declines over the last several decades, yet these declines have gone largely unnoticed by the public. Fish suffer in proportion to how close they are to population centres. The predatory behaviour of anglers is not self-regulating. The scientists illustrated the severe decline in walleye, pike, and particular trout in Canada, due to over-fishing. This can only get worse, as the human population explosion continues. The huge hatchery infrastructure in North America only helps to hide the collapse of native fish, and reduce the natural gene pool.
Although commercial fishing is devastating to marine life, American scientists (Coleman, 2004) say that recreational landings in 2002 accounted for 4% of total marine fish landed in the United States. Fishes targeted include fish populations which are already in trouble, such as red drum, bocaccio, and red snapper. For these particular fish, in some populations, angling kills easily outstrip those from commercial fishermen. Angling concentrates on top-level predators, altering the structure, function, and fertility of marine ecosystems. The main problem is that there is little constraint on anglers.
Scientists in Australia (Mcphee, 2002) say that anglers have a significant negative impact on the marine environment. They report that lobbying by anglers has managed to deflect justified criticism. In Australia alone, 50,000 tonnes of fish are killed every year. Matters have become worse as technology improves: high quality echo sounders; global positioning systems (GPS); new types of low diameter high strength fishing lines; and chemically sharpened fish hooks. Additionally, there is greater information available to anglers through the media and the internet regarding "hot spots", the right seasons and the most efficient techniques for particular species. Significant harm is done by the killing of slow maturing sharks, fish with low populations and ranges, and rare and threatened species. Additionally, very large numbers of invertebrates are captured for use as bait.
In Britain, the Environment Agency state that heavy angling pressure has contributed to the decline in wild trout and salmon. Artificial stocking can meet the demand, but high densities can reduce the diversity of native fish and plants. This is particularly the case for bream and carp. Artificially increasing numbers also increases the risk of disease and can kill fish.
NATIVE SALMON THREATENED
Native salmon can be threatened by disease, parasites, competition and predation. Small native fish are at special risk being eaten.
INTRODUCED CARP DISPLACE PERCH AND RUDD, AND SUFFER THEMSELVES
The popularity of introduced carp has pushed out perch and rudd. The Environment Agency say even the carp themselves often have difficulty in spawning successfully, seldom reach large size, and are prone to parasites. Stocking may also introduce diseases such as spring viraemia of carp, which ruin the fishery.
PARASITES AND DISEASE SPREAD BY ANGLING ACTIVITY
Wet nets and anglers' boots can carry parasites and diseases, such as crayfish plague and spring viraemia of carp, the seeds of undesirable exotic plants, such as giant hogweed and Himalayan balsam, and root-fragments of the invasive Japanese knotweed.
BIRDS AT RISK
The Environment Agency recommend a close season (period where anglers are banned), so wildlife, such as breeding fish, amphibians, birds, and vegetation can recover. Breeding birds are at particular risk from anglers, as they may desert their eggs or young if disturbed. Wading anglers can damage fish eggs buried in the gravel, invertebrates and water plants. Such is the risk, the Agency gives advice to anglers on reducing the trauma to hooked swans and other large birds.
image of Royal Tern with fishing line protruding from her mouth
Discarded fishing line is a significant problem for a variety of animals, including turtles, dolphins, some other mammals, and several sea birds such as pelicans, according to scientists in Australia (Mcphee, 2002).
Bottlenose dolphins in Florida also suffer serious injuries or death due to anglers, particularly from entanglement in discarded lines.
Boat strike is the single biggest cause of marine turtle mortality in Queensland.
Pelican with line caught in her mouth
At a UN conference on alien species in Norway in 1996, experts from 80 countries concluded that alien invasive species were a major threat to biodiversity conservation, and probably the greatest threat after habitat destruction (Cambray, 2003). One third of all endangered and threatened species in the USA are listed, at least in part, due to the action of alien species.
For the sole pleasure of anglers, fish have been transported around the world and dumped in waters without any risk assessment. Small native species loose out to larger fish used for angling amusement. The release of non-native live bait adds to the problem. Native insects and tadpoles can be eaten in large numbers. An example is at the Californian High Sierra lakes. Such small life became rare or absent in lakes containing introduced trout (Cambray, 2003).
Many examples of harm done by alien fish for angling exist:
Salmonids (salmon, trout, char, etc) introduced into Australia and New Zealand in the 1800s caused the decline of a range of native species, including the River Blackfish, galaxiids², the Tasmanian Mountain Shrimp, Spotted Tree Frog, Crested Grebe, the Blue Duck, possibly other frog species and the New Zealand Grayling (Mcphee, 2002).
Ruffle and roach, introduced as live-bait for pike fishing, threaten vendance, whitefish, and Artic Charr in the Lake District in Britain. The Environment Agency says that it is practically impossible to remove them; they can now only be managed by stopping any more being introduced.
In Loch Lomond in Scotland, anglers introduced ruffe for live-bait in pike fishing. These fish now predate on the eggs and fry of powan, a rare whitefish in the loch.
The Global Species Database has a list of the world's worst invaders. Among the animals on the list, there are fish introduced for the fun of anglers:
Fish among 100 "World’s Worst" invaders, spread by anglers