European Food Safety Authority

General approach to fish welfare and to the concept of sentience in fish Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Animal Health and Welfare
Author: European Food Safety Authority
Journal: The EFSA Journal 954, 1-27
Year: 2009
"There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that some fish species have brain structures potentially capable of experiencing pain and fear. The balance of evidence indicates that some fish species have the capacity to experience pain."

"Responses of fish, of some species and under certain situations, suggest that they are able to experience fear."

"there is some evidence for the neural components of sentience¹ in some species of fish"
europe fish pain

¹ readiness to perceive sensations

Fish Pain