European Food Safety Authority

"There is scientific evidence to support the assumption that some fish species have brain structures potentially capable of experiencing pain and fear. The balance of evidence indicates that some fish species have the capacity to experience pain."

"Responses of fish, of some species and under certain situations, suggest that they are able to experience fear."

"there is some evidence for the neural components of sentience¹ in some species of fish"
europe fish pain

¹ readiness to perceive sensations

Fish Pain