Review of mortality studies

Authors: Muoneke, Maurice and Childress, W. Michael
Journal: Reviews in Fisheries Science, 2(2): 123-156
Year: 1994
Where: Texas A&M University, and Texas Parks and Wildlife Department

This large and often quoted study, gathers considerable data from:

  • the scientific literature
  • surveys in 50 American states
  • the American Government
  • Canadian provinces
  • research bodies

SCOPE OF RESEARCH

"Although most hooking mortalities occur within 24 h, the use of initial plus delayed mortality provides a more complete estimate of mortality."

"Hooking mortality information was available for 30 species and two interspecific hybrids representing both freshwater and marine species."

SUMMARY

"Mortalities were highly variable; occasionally exceeding 30% among red drum, smallmouth bass, largemouth bass, cutthroat trout, and catfishes, and 68% among spotted seatrout, bluegills, crappies, striped bass, and coho salmon. Lake trout and pikes had mortalities under 15%."

"Most hooking-related mortalities occur within 24h."

DEATH RATES

death studies angling cruelty "Among salmonids, for which a number of hooking mortality studies were conducted under a range of conditions, mortalities ranged from 0 to 57% for brook trout, 0 to 28% for brown trout, 6 to 25% for chinook salmon, 6.8 to 69.3% for coho salmon, 0.3 to 48.5% for cutthroat trout, 6.98 to 14% for lake trout, and 1 to 95% for rainbow trout."

"Mortalities among centrarchids were relatively high on the average and ranged from 0 to 77% for crappies, 0 to 88% for bluegills, 32 to 38% for largemouth bass, and 0 to 47.3% for smallmouth bass."

"Catch-and-release rates for 16 salmonid species averaged 64% in 1990 in Alaska (Mills, 1991), and voluntary catch and-release rates of black basses in nine Florida lakes averaged 37% in 1989 and 29% 14 years earlier (Champeau and Thomas, 1993). Using a 37% hooking mortality rate (Hegen et al., 1983)."

"Mortality was 33% for channel catfish caught by angling in ponds (Rutledge 1975)."

"In a 3-year study employing worms and flies to catch brook trout in Michigan streams, mortalities ranged from 1.65% for fly-caught fish to 48.89% for worm-caught fish (Shetter and Allison, 1955)."

"Striped bass hooking mortality in freshwater was estimated in one study to be 38.1%."

"May (1990) reported mortalities up to 70.39%, and Childress (1989) reported that up to 69% of striped bass caught with artificial lures and live baits died."

"On the average, striped bass mortalities were high, and ranged from 0 to 70.39%."

"Childress (1989a) reported the mortality of palmetto bass as 29% in summer when live baits and artificial lures were used."

"Mortality was 60% for yellow bass caught using natural baits on unattended (deployed at sunset and retrieved at sunrise) triggers (Tilyou and Hoenke, in press)."

"In a Californian study 19.0 to 47.3% of fish caught with natural baits died (Weidlein, 1989)."

"Tournament catch-and-release mortalities have been reported for Florida, 14 to 30% (May, 1973; Schramm et al., 1985, 1987); South Carolina, 19-4% (Archer and Loyacano, 1975), Texas, 32% (Seidensticker, 1977)."

"Largemouth bass caught with natural baits and artificial lures in Texas ponds had a mortality of 38% (Rutledge, 1975; Rutledge and Pritchard 1977)."

"Up to 77% of black crappie died in a winter Texas reservoir study" (Childress, 1989b)."

"Mortalities among centrarchids were relatively high on the average and ranged from 0 to 77% for crappies, 0 to 88% for bluegills, 3-2 to 38% for largemouth bass, and 0 to 47.3% for smallmouth bass."

"Mortality up to 55.6% was indicated for spotted seatrout caught using natural baits on treble hooks as well as artificial lures (Matlock and Dailey, 1981)."

"Hegen et al. (1983) reported 37% mortality for spotted seatrout caught using a variety of gears. Martin et al. (1987a, b)"

"Summer mortality was 44.7% for red drum caught with natural baits or artificial lures in a freshwater reservoir (Childress, 1989a). In general, mortalities were highly variable among red drum (0 to 44.7%) and spotted seatrout (0 to 70%)."
Archer D. L and H. A. Loyacano, Jr., (1974) Initial and delayed mortalities of largemouth bass captured in the 1973 National Keowee B.A.S.S. tournament. Proc. 28ib Annu. Conj. Southeast. Assoc. Game Fish Comm., 28:90-96.
Childress, V. M., (1989a) Hooking Mortality of White Doss, Striped Bass, Write Bass x Striped Hybrid Bass and Red Drum. Final Rcpt. F-31-R-15. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department.
Childress, V. M., (1989b) Catch-and-release mortality of white and black crappie. In: Catcb-and- Release Fishing— A Decade of Experience, pp. 175-186. (Barnhart, R. A. and T. D. Roelofs, Eds.). Arcata, CA: Humboldt State University, California Cooperative Fisheries Research Unit.
Champeau, T. R. and P., (1993) Thomas. Voluntary release of largemouth bass by Florida anglers. Proc. 45th Anntt. Conf. Southeast Assoc. Fish World. Agenc, 45:317-322.
Hegen, II. E. and A. W. Green., (1983) Handling and tagging survival of hook-caught spotted seatrout held in cages. Proc. Tex. Chap. Am. Fish. Soc., 5:39-53.
Martin, J. H., K. W. Rice, and L. W. McEachron., (1987a) Survival of three fishes caught on trotlincs. Manage. Data Ser., No. 111. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Coastal Fisheries Branch.
Martin, J. H., L W. McEachron, J. F. Doerzbacher, K. W. Rice, and. M. Mambretti., (1987b) Comparison of trotline catches on four bait types in the Laguna Madre during June-August 1985. Manage. Data Ser., No. 124. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department. Coastal Fisheries Branch .
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May, B. E.(1973) Evaluation of large-scale release programs with special reference to bass fishing tournaments. Proc. 26tb Atmu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Game Fish Comm., 26:325-329.
May, E., (1990) An Evaluation of Angler Induced Mortality of Striped Bass in Maryland. Proj. AFC-18- 1. Maryland Department of Natural Resources.
Mills, M. J., (1991) Harvest, catch, and participation in Alaska sport fisheries during 1990. Fish. Data Ser. No. 91-58. Alaska Department of Fish and Game.
Rutledge, W. P., (1975) Hooking mortality study. Final Rep. Fed. Aid Proj., F-31-R1. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department.
Rutledge, W. P. and D. L Pritchard., (1977) Hooking mortality of Largemouth bass captured by artificial lures and natural bait. In: Catcb-and-Release Fishing as a Management Tool. pp. 103-107. (Barnhart, R. A. and T. D. Roelofs, Eds.). Arcata, CA: California Cooperative Fisheries Research Unit.
Seidensticker, E. P., (1977) Mortality of largemouth bass for two tournaments using a "Don’t Kill Your Catch" program. In: Catch-and-Release Fishing as a Management Tool, pp. 99-102. (Barnhart, R. A. and T/ D. Roelofs, Eds.). Arcata, CA: California Cooperative Fisheries Research Unit.
Shetter, D. S. and G. L. Alexander., (1962) Effects of flies-only restriction on angling and fall trout populations in Hunt Creek, Montgomery County, Michigan. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc 91:295-302.
Tilyou, G. A. and C. E. Moenke. Evaluation of unattended yo-yos and triggers. Proc. 46th Annu. Conf. Southeast. Assoc. Fish Wildl. Agencies.
Weidlein, W. D., (1989) Mortality of released sub legal-sized smallmouth bass, catch-and-release implications. In: Catcb-and-Release Fishing —A Decade of Experience, pp. 217-228. (Darnhart, R. A. and T. D. Roelofs, Eds.). Arcata, CA: Humboldt State University, California Cooperative Fisheries Research Unit.
Schramm, H. L, Jr., P. J. Haydt, and N. A. Bruno., (1985) Survival of tournament-caught largemouth bass in two Florida lakes. N. Am. J. Fish. Manage., 5:606-611.
Schramm, H. L,Jr., P. J. Haydt, and K. M. Portier., (1987) Evaluation of prerelease, postrelease, and total mortality of largemouth bass caught during tournaments in two Florida lakes. N.Am J. Fish, Manage., 7:394-402.
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