Chemical indication of stress

The Endocrinology of Stress, page 97
Author: Sumpter
Year: 1997
Where: Cambridge University Press

Two well known indicators of stress in animals are

  • adrenalin
  • cortisol
These are also used by fish.


"Stress in fish, as in other animals, results in two types of endocrine response, the adrenergic response, resulting in increased plasma concentrations of adrenaline and noradrenaline, and the hypothalamo-pituitary-interrenal response, culminating in an increased plasma cortisol concentration."




Fish Pain