In this Dutch experiment, scientists found that fish were able to remember, and then avoid, being caught by anglers. Carp were able to remember their terrifying experience one year later.
Incredibly, other fish were able to learn from the unfortunate experience of other previously hooked fish.
"When high proportions of the fished carp were hooked and subsequently lost, the whole populations fished for (not only the captured parts) became nearly uncatchable."
"Catchability of carp one year after being either captured or hooked and lost was some three times lower."