Barotrauma is the injury caused when fish at depth are quickly brought to the surface by anglers.
This research, in Canada, recorded horrendous suffering to fish in a lake in Ontario during a fishing tournament:
"Barotrauma results from a process called decompression, where fish are brought from depth to the surface quickly, leading to rapid changes in ambient pressure."
HORRENDOUS INJURIES CAUSED BY PRESSURE INSIDE FISH
"The decline in ambient pressure can have profound physiological and physical consequences... Beyond problems with swim bladder distention (which, in some species, includes stomach or anal eversion or swim bladder bursting), ... internal (peritoneum, kidneys, dorsal aorta)... and external (fins, gums, body surface) hemorrhaging; ocular pressure; formation of gas bubbles within the circulatory system, gills, heart, and brain... and general tissue damage"
"At a fall competitive angling event on Rainy Lake in northwestern Ontario, we evaluated the incidence of barotrauma among tournament-caught smallmouth bass."
HIGH PERCENTAGE TRAUMATISED
"Overall, 76% of fish had at least one sign of barotrauma (either hemorrhaging or swim bladder distention)"
"32% of fish had two or more indicators and were thus deemed to have severe barotrauma."
"Of our examined fish, 64% showed signs of hemorrhaging and 42% showed signs of extreme bloating."
LEFT TO SUFFER
"When telemetered fish were released at a common site, we determined that fish with negligible signs of barotrauma evacuated the release site more rapidly than fish with severe barotrauma did."
"Some fish with barotrauma floundered at the surface when released, and one of these fish was subsequently hit and killed by a boat."
"At the end of the monitoring period, 20% of fish with severe barotrauma had died; two additional individuals (20%) that were still at the release site were moribund"
"Stress indices were higher in fish with barotrauma and tended to be highest among fish with barotrauma that died after release.
"Outside of a laboratory environment, a significant proportion of fish with severe barotrauma may die after release."
"When released, fish that are unable to return to depth immediately because of the added buoyancy could face predation; ... solar radiation or thermal stress; involuntary transport to shore or undesirable habitats via waves, currents, tides, or wind; injury from impact with boats; or additional physiological disturbances as they struggle to return to depth."
"All fish with extreme bloating also had problems maintaining equilibrium and were floating on the water surface during observations. In addition, when placed in the live release boats, many of these same fish floated upside down but continued to ventilate their gills."