“Angling can result in sublethal physical injury, sub-lethal stress or mortality. The latter occurring from stress/shock, physical injury, pressure change related damage in species with a swim-bladder or capture by predators upon release.

For site faithful species there is the additional impact of removal from their home range/habitat/nest site.

There is a paucity of information of the long term consequences of sub-lethal injuries and stress. However, it is likely that the effects will be cumulative and reduce an individual’s fitness.”

Prof C.L.J. Frid, 2006, The potential, opportunities and constraints, of MPAs for angling, A report to English Nature, University of Liverpool.


Unhooked    Do fish feel pain?