“Angling can result in sublethal physical injury, sub-lethal stress or mortality. The latter occurring from stress/shock, physical injury, pressure change related damage in species with a swim-bladder or capture by predators upon release.
For site faithful species there is the additional impact of removal from their home range/habitat/nest site.
There is a paucity of information of the long term consequences of sub-lethal injuries and stress. However, it is likely that the effects will be cumulative and reduce an individual’s fitness.”